- Steam Theory
- 1. Basics of Steam
- 2. Steam Heating
- 3. Basics of Steam Traps
- 4. Steam Trap Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: How Application Affects Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: Understanding Specifications
- Steam Trap Selection: Safety Factor and Life Cycle Cost
- Traps and Orifices Part 1
- Traps and Orifices Part 2
- Casting vs. Forging
- Don't Get Steamed : Selecting Steam Trap Design
- Understanding Steam Traps
- 5. Steam Trap Problems
- 6. Steam Trap Management
- 7. Water Hammer
- 8. Steam Quality
- 9. Steam Distribution
- 10. Condensate Recovery
- Introduction to Condensate Recovery
- Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps
- Condensate Recovery: Vented vs. Pressurized Systems
- Condensate Recovery Piping
- What is Stall?
- Methods of Preventing Stall
- Cavitation in Condensate Pumps
- Steam Heat Exchangers are Underworked and Over-Surfaced
- Stop Knocking Your Condensate Return
- 11. Energy Efficiency
- 12. Compressed Air / Gas
- 13. Other Valves
Introduction to Condensate Recovery
What is Condensate?
Condensate is the liquid formed when steam passes from the vapor to the liquid state.
In a heating process, condensate is the result of steam transferring a portion of its heat energy, known as latent heat, to the product, line, or equipment being heated.
Example of Steam Heating Process
Latent Heat vs. Sensible Heat
In steam-using industries, Latent Heat refers to the energy required to transform water into steam, also known as the Enthalpy or Heat of Vaporization. By absorbing this Latent Heat, water becomes steam, and by releasing it, steam reverts to high temperature water (condensate).
When steam condenses, at the threshold or instant of phase change, the condensate temperature is the same as steam because only the latent heat has been lost, and the full amount of sensible heat remains. This condition is known as “Saturated Water”. Not wasting, but rather recovering and reusing as much of this sensible heat as possible is one of the main reasons behind condensate recovery.
Water Changing States
What is Condensate Recovery?
If 1 t/h of steam is supplied to equipment for a heating process, then the same amount of condensate (1 t/h) needs to be discharged from the equipment. Condensate recovery is a process to reuse the water and sensible heat contained in the discharged condensate. Recovering condensate instead of throwing it away can lead to significant savings of energy, chemical treatment and make-up water.
Condensate can be reused in many different ways, for example:
- As heated feedwater, by sending hot condensate back to the boiler’s deaerator
- As pre-heat, for any applicable heating system
- As steam, by reusing flash steam
- As hot water, for cleaning equipment or other cleaning applications
The Benefits of Condensate Recovery
Reusing hot condensate can lead to considerable savings in terms of energy and water resources, as well as improve working conditions and reduce your plant's carbon footprint.
Reduced Fuel Costs
Condensate contains a significant amount of sensible heat that can account for about 10% to 30% of the initial heat energy contained in the steam.
Feeding the boiler with high-temperature condensate can maximize boiler output because less heat energy is required to turn water into steam. When efficiently recovered and reused, it can even be possible to reduce boiler fuel needs by up to 10 to 20%.
Lower Water-related Expenses
As long as any impurities picked up during condensate transport are removed, condensate can be reused as boiler feedwater, reducing water supply and treatment costs, as well as costs associated with cold water used to lower condensate temperatures before sewering, where applicable.
Positive Impact on Safety and the Environment
Reducing boiler fuel needs through condensate recovery leads to less air pollution by lowering CO2, NOx and SOx emissions.
Additionally, condensate recovery lines can also limit vapor clouds to reduce noise generated from atmospheric condensate discharge and help prevent build-up of water on the ground, considerably improving a plant’s work environment.
Depending on the amount of condensate being recovered and reused, other benefits may include a reduced need for boiler blowdown through better feedwater quality, and less corrosion in the system as water quality becomes more consistent throughout the grid.
Condensate Recovery vs. No Recovery
No Condensate Recovery
|Corrosion in Steam and Condensate Piping||Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps|