- Steam Theory
- 1. Basics of Steam
- 2. Steam Heating
- 3. Basics of Steam Traps
- 4. Steam Trap Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: How Application Affects Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: Understanding Specifications
- Steam Trap Selection: Safety Factor and Life Cycle Cost
- Traps and Orifices Part 1
- Traps and Orifices Part 2
- Casting vs. Forging
- Applications of Different Types of Steam Traps
- Don't Get Steamed : Selecting Steam Trap Design
- Understanding Steam Traps
- 5. Steam Trap Problems
- 6. Steam Trap Management
- 7. Water Hammer
- Water Hammer: What is it?
- Water Hammer: The Mechanism
- Water Hammer: Cause and Location
- Water Hammer: In Steam Distribution Lines
- Water Hammer: In Equipment
- Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping
- Water Hammer: Conclusion
- Mitigation of Water Hammer in Vertical Flashing Condensate Transport Piping
- Stop Knocking Your Condensate Return
- Steam Trap Management: Do Something; Anything. Please!
- 8. Risk Mitigation
- 9. Steam Quality
- 10. Steam Distribution
- 11. Condensate Recovery
- Introduction to Condensate Recovery
- Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps
- Condensate Recovery: Vented vs. Pressurized Systems
- Condensate Recovery Piping
- What is Stall?
- Methods of Preventing Stall
- Cavitation in Condensate Pumps
- Steam Heat Exchangers are Underworked and Over-Surfaced
- Allocate New Plant Focus to Steam System Design—Part 2
- 12. Energy Efficiency
- 13. Compressed Air / Gas
- 14. Other Valves
Water Hammer: Conclusion
It may come as a surprise, but thermal imaging, which provides a visual image of temperature distribution, is a very effective way of identifying the locations where water hammer occurs. As the surface of piping must be exposed in order to be able to use the technique, images should be taken during a trial operation before any insulation is applied. If insulation is already in place, it can be temporarily removed for the purposes of taking the images.
Changes in temperature of piping before and after water hammer
As we discussed earlier in the series, when the temperature difference between steam and condensate is within a certain range, it is particularly easy for water hammer to occur (see here). Pinpointing the locations where this change in temperatures takes place speeds up the process of effecting countermeasures.
Large-scale water hammer can be very dangerous, and everyone understands the need to establish countermeasures against it. On the other hand, small-scale water hammer is often disregarded. Although it takes a longer time, small-scale water hammer often leads to damage too. From a preventative maintenance standpoint, it is critical that countermeasures be taken against this type of water hammer as well.
|Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping||Mitigation of Water Hammer in Vertical Flashing Condensate Transport Piping|