- Steam Theory
- 1. Basics of Steam
- 2. Steam Heating
- 3. Basics of Steam Traps
- 4. Steam Trap Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: How Application Affects Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: Understanding Specifications
- Steam Trap Selection: Safety Factor and Life Cycle Cost
- Traps and Orifices Part 1
- Traps and Orifices Part 2
- Casting vs. Forging
- Applications of Different Types of Steam Traps
- Don't Get Steamed : Selecting Steam Trap Design
- Understanding Steam Traps
- 5. Steam Trap Problems
- 6. Steam Trap Management
- 7. Water Hammer
- Water Hammer: What is it?
- Water Hammer: The Mechanism
- Water Hammer: Cause and Location
- Water Hammer: In Steam Distribution Lines
- Water Hammer: In Equipment
- Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping
- Water Hammer: Conclusion
- Mitigation of Water Hammer in Vertical Flashing Condensate Transport Piping
- Stop Knocking Your Condensate Return
- Steam Trap Management: Do Something; Anything. Please!
- 8. Risk Mitigation
- 9. Steam Quality
- 10. Steam Distribution
- 11. Condensate Recovery
- Introduction to Condensate Recovery
- Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps
- Condensate Recovery: Vented vs. Pressurized Systems
- Condensate Recovery Piping
- What is Stall?
- Methods of Preventing Stall
- Cavitation in Condensate Pumps
- Steam Heat Exchangers are Underworked and Over-Surfaced
- Allocate New Plant Focus to Steam System Design—Part 2
- 12. Energy Efficiency
- Tips to improve steam plant efficiency
- Advice on Winter Preparation for Steam Systems
- Insulating Traps
- Steam Compressors
- Why Save Energy?
- Management Strategies for Conserving Energy
- Recovering Steam Clouds and Waste Heat
- Waste Heat Recovery
- Handle Steam More Intelligently
- Optimize the Entire Steam System
- Use Available Data to Lower System Cost
- 13. Compressed Air / Gas
- 14. Other Valves
Water Hammer in Equipment
Water hammer inside equipment, just like water hammer in steam distribution lines, is often caused by high levels of accumulated condensate. The difference between the two is that this type of water hammer also occurs during steady operation.
Take for example shell and tube heat exchangers. When the load to the equipment drops (due to factors such as a reduction in the amount of product to be heated or an increase in the product's temperature), the pressure differential between the trap inlet and outlet pressures disappears, and condensate starts to pool inside the shell. This phenomenon is known as 'stall.' Depending on back pressure, the shell can also become full of condensate when the equipment is shut down.
When steam is supplied to an area that has a high level of condensate, it instantly condenses and water hammer occurs. In most cases, this results in small-scale impacts over a brief period, unlike the violent impacts that occur in steam distribution lines.
However, if this small-scale water hammer is allowed to continue over long periods of time, it can weaken the equipment to the point where the equipment suddenly ruptures. This breach often occurs under high pressure, heavy load, full operation conditions. The rapid discharge of condensate is thus critical from a preventative maintenance standpoint. For more information on this type of problem, visit our Stall Tutorial.
Water Hammer in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
In addition to stall, many other situations can lead to the accumulation of condensate inside equipment. Problems with heat exchanger construction or pressure-balancing lines, improperly installed steam traps and piping, and condensate return lines in bad condition are some examples of these. To identify and correctly prevent the accumulation of condensate, it is necessary to thoroughly determine its cause(s), and apply preventative measures accordingly.
Just as in steam distribution lines, the speed of condensate discharge combined with how smoothly the process occurs are two extremely important factors in the fight against water hammer in steam-using equipment.
Reasons Why Condensate Accumulates in Equipment
Improper equipment construction or orientation
Though these countermeasures may sound quite simple, it is not always actually possible to achieve them.
Cases in Which Countermeasures Are Difficult
For example, a single coil of a bottom heater on a 30,000 kl heavy oil tank can exceeded 100 m in length. The difference in level between the inlet and outlet on the heater results in a slope ratio of 1 in 300 or 400, which is less than half the pitch of typical steam piping (1/100-1/200). With this pitch, it is not always possible for condensate to flow downhill naturally by gravity.
Completely resolving the problem might be difficult in cases like this, where the configuration of equipment does not allow for suitable downhill flow.
As mentioned above, stall can be another source of difficulties, especially in conventional heaters.
Effective countermeasures against water hammer in these types of situations is, for example, the use of a PowerTrap® (which uses steam to pump and remove condensate) and vacuum condensate recovery pumps.
|Water Hammer: In Steam Distribution Lines||Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping|