- Steam Theory
- 1. Basics of Steam
- 2. Steam Heating
- 3. Basics of Steam Traps
- 4. Steam Trap Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: How Application Affects Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: Understanding Specifications
- Steam Trap Selection: Safety Factor and Life Cycle Cost
- Traps and Orifices Part 1
- Traps and Orifices Part 2
- Casting vs. Forging
- Applications of Different Types of Steam Traps
- Don't Get Steamed : Selecting Steam Trap Design
- Understanding Steam Traps
- Compare Two Fixed Orifice Venturi Products to a Variable Orifice Free Float Steam Trap
- 5. Steam Trap Problems
- 6. Steam Trap Management
- 7. Water Hammer
- Water Hammer: What is it?
- Water Hammer: The Mechanism
- Water Hammer: Cause and Location
- Water Hammer: In Steam Distribution Lines
- Water Hammer: In Equipment
- Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping
- Identifying Water Hammer Using a Thermal Camera
- Mitigation of Water Hammer in Vertical Flashing Condensate Transport Piping
- Stop Knocking Your Condensate Return
- Steam Trap Management: Do Something; Anything. Please!
- 8. Risk Mitigation
- 9. Steam Quality
- 10. Steam Distribution
- 11. Condensate Recovery
- Introduction to Condensate Recovery
- Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps
- Condensate Recovery: Vented vs. Pressurized Systems
- Condensate Recovery Piping
- What is Stall?
- Methods of Preventing Stall
- Cavitation in Condensate Pumps
- Steam Heat Exchangers are Underworked and Over-Surfaced
- Allocate New Plant Focus to Steam System Design—Part 2
- 12. Energy Efficiency
- Steam Compressors
- Why Save Energy?
- Management Strategies for Conserving Energy
- Recovering Steam Clouds and Waste Heat
- Waste Heat Recovery
- Boiler Energy Saving Tips
- Steam Line Energy Saving Tips
- Steam-Using Equipment Energy Saving Tips
- Handle Steam More Intelligently
- Optimize the Entire Steam System
- Use Available Data to Lower System Cost
- 13. Compressed Air / Gas
- 14. Other Valves
Steam Line Energy Saving Tips
Loss of Steam from Steam Lines
Boiler Energy Saving Tips examined ways of saving energy by improving boiler efficiency, but this article will investigate ways of saving energy by reducing heat loss from the pipes that transport the steam created in the boiler.
Steam transport lines are often overlooked when it comes to energy conservation strategies. However, as these lines generally run across long distances within the plant, they have a large surface area and thus a high potential to radiate heat energy or lose steam due to leaks.
There are two major ways in which steam lines can lose heat energy:
- Heat radiation from the surface of pipes and valves
- Steam leakage from valves, pipes, and steam traps
This article will explain how to limit both varieties of heat loss from steam lines.
Preventing Heat Radiation
To limit the amount of heat radiated from steam lines, follow these two steps:
1. Optimize the insulation of existing steam pipes, valves, and fittings
It is important to properly insulate all uninsulated steam pipes; flanges and other fittings; and control valves, PRVs, and other valves. The operation method of a steam trap should first be considered before applying insulation to a steam trap and its associated piping. Thermodynamic and thermostatic traps can remain shut for extended periods of time when insulated and prevent the discharge of condensate from the application to be drained.
The material and thickness of the insulation should conform to local regulations. An economic analysis is recommended to determine the optimum material and thickness for a given pipe size.
2. Reduce total surface area of piping
The amount of heat radiated from a pipe is proportional to the surface area of the pipe, so using an over-sized pipe will increase the amount of heat radiated. However, using too small of a pipe size will limit the amount of steam able to be distributed at a given velocity.
A steam distribution line must be sized for the plant’s maximum steam flow rate at an acceptable velocity. This will ensure the pipe is neither too large to waste excessive heat nor too small to limit flow. Pressure loss must also be factored into determining the correct pipe size.
As the surface area of the pipe will also increase with the length of pipe, it is imperative to optimize the piping route to keep radiation losses to a minimum.
Preventing Steam Leaks
There are two steps that should be taken to reduce the amount of steam that leaks from steam lines.
1. Repair leaks from valves and fittings
It is unusual for steam to leak constantly from modern fittings and valve stems, but even small leaks during operation can add up to large losses over time.
These losses can compound financially so it is recommended that leaks are repaired as quickly as possible.
The cost of steam leaks can be calculated using the formula in this article:
2. Prevent steam trap leaks
The steam traps installed on steam lines can also be responsible for leaking steam. Steam traps can leak steam for one of the following reasons:
- Leakage due to trap failure
- Leakage due to inherent operation (functional steam loss)
The amount of steam that leaks when traps fail depends on the model of trap and the pressure of the steam, but below is a rough guide to the amount of steam lost from different sized leaks:
- Small, intermittent leak = Approx. 9 lb/h
- Constant leak = Approx. 33 lb/h
If a plant operates for 8,000 hours in a year and the cost of steam is $10 per 1,000 lb, then one failed trap with a small, intermittent leak in that plant will cost the plant around $720 annually. A single trap with a constant leak will cost the plant $2,640 annually.
The amount of functional steam loss from traps during normal operation varies greatly depending on the variety of trap. Conventional steam traps such as disc traps and bucket traps lose 10 times more steam during normal operation compared to energy-efficient Free Float® steam traps.
As conventional trap types leak large volumes of steam over their lifecycle, plants can benefit financially from replacing these traps with TLV Free Float® models immediately rather than waiting until conventional traps fail.
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