- Steam Theory
- 1. Basics of Steam
- 2. Steam Heating
- 3. Basics of Steam Traps
- 4. Steam Trap Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: How Application Affects Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: Understanding Specifications
- Steam Trap Selection: Safety Factor and Life Cycle Cost
- Traps and Orifices Part 1
- Traps and Orifices Part 2
- Casting vs. Forging
- Applications of Different Types of Steam Traps
- Don't Get Steamed : Selecting Steam Trap Design
- Understanding Steam Traps
- 5. Steam Trap Problems
- 6. Steam Trap Management
- 7. Water Hammer
- Water Hammer: What is it?
- Water Hammer: The Mechanism
- Water Hammer: Cause and Location
- Water Hammer: In Steam Distribution Lines
- Water Hammer: In Equipment
- Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping
- Water Hammer: Conclusion
- Mitigation of Water Hammer in Vertical Flashing Condensate Transport Piping
- Stop Knocking Your Condensate Return
- Steam Trap Management: Do Something; Anything. Please!
- 8. Risk Mitigation
- 9. Steam Quality
- 10. Steam Distribution
- 11. Condensate Recovery
- Introduction to Condensate Recovery
- Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps
- Condensate Recovery: Vented vs. Pressurized Systems
- Condensate Recovery Piping
- What is Stall?
- Methods of Preventing Stall
- Cavitation in Condensate Pumps
- Steam Heat Exchangers are Underworked and Over-Surfaced
- Allocate New Plant Focus to Steam System Design—Part 2
- 12. Energy Efficiency
- 13. Compressed Air / Gas
- 14. Other Valves
Temperature Problems Caused by Air
Is the supply steam to your process at the correct pressure, but for some reason under-temperature? Does the product fail to heat up to the correct temperature? Air can diffuse and mix with steam at start-up or during regular operation, which effectively reduces the steam pressure and results in reduced heat transfer. This phenomenon can be explained by Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that:
If different types of gas are mixed together, the total pressure of the gas mixture equals the sum of the partial pressures of each type of gas.
Therefore, if equipment contains other gases in addition to steam, the other gases will affect the total pressure shown on the vessel's pressure gauge.
Animation of Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Partial pressure is the pressure each type of gas in the mixture would have if that gas alone were to fill the container. Note, however, that this type of separation is not possible in reality.
The pressure indicated by the mixture (total pressure) is the sum of all the partial pressures. In other words, 150 psi (total pressure) = 120 psi (partial pressure) + 30 psi (partial pressure). So the temperature of this 150 psi of gas mixture will never rise higher than the saturation temperature of the 120 psi of steam.
Why the Temperature Doesn’t Rise
Most types of steam equipment fill up with air when not in use. This air needs be removed from the system at start-up for proper operation. If the air is not removed, the air will stay within the equipment and prevent the steam space from completely filling with saturated steam. When the pressure of the steam space is then measured, the pressure indicated is that of the mixture of air and steam:
When the steam space contains a mixture of steam and air, the pressure indicated by the pressure gauge (PTotal) cannot be used to accurately assess steam temperature, represented by P2.
The actual steam temperature will therefore always be lower than the expected value, which can lead to insufficient temperatures.
Calculating the % Air Mixed with Steam
If you know the temperature within the steam space, the air % by volume can easily be calculated using TLV's online Engineering Calculator.
Although not directly connected to Dalton's law of partial pressure, it is important to note that air can greatly interfere with heat transfer because it is a poor heat conductor. Air can also cause long start-up times because it restricts steam flow, as well as cause corrosion when it is mixed with water or condensate. In addition, although this article uses the term "air", these problems not only relate to air but also other non-condensable gases such as those that sometimes form as a by-product of water treatment.
|Clean & Pure Steam||Removing Air from Steam Equipment|