- Steam Theory
- 1. Basics of Steam
- 2. Steam Heating
- 3. Basics of Steam Traps
- 4. Steam Trap Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: How Application Affects Selection
- Steam Trap Selection: Understanding Specifications
- Steam Trap Selection: Safety Factor and Life Cycle Cost
- Traps and Orifices Part 1
- Traps and Orifices Part 2
- Casting vs. Forging
- Applications of Different Types of Steam Traps
- Don't Get Steamed : Selecting Steam Trap Design
- Understanding Steam Traps
- Compare Two Fixed Orifice Venturi Products to a Variable Orifice Free Float Steam Trap
- 5. Steam Trap Problems
- 6. Steam Trap Management
- 7. Water Hammer
- Water Hammer: What is it?
- Water Hammer: The Mechanism
- Water Hammer: Cause and Location
- Water Hammer: In Steam Distribution Lines
- Water Hammer: In Equipment
- Water Hammer: In Condensate Transport Piping
- Identifying Water Hammer Using a Thermal Camera
- Mitigation of Water Hammer in Vertical Flashing Condensate Transport Piping
- Stop Knocking Your Condensate Return
- Steam Trap Management: Do Something; Anything. Please!
- 8. Risk Mitigation
- 9. Steam Quality
- 10. Steam Distribution
- 11. Condensate Recovery
- Introduction to Condensate Recovery
- Returning Condensate and When to Use Condensate Pumps
- Condensate Recovery: Vented vs. Pressurized Systems
- Condensate Recovery Piping
- What is Stall?
- Methods of Preventing Stall
- Cavitation in Condensate Pumps
- Steam Heat Exchangers are Underworked and Over-Surfaced
- Allocate New Plant Focus to Steam System Design—Part 2
- 12. Energy Efficiency
- Steam Compressors
- Why Save Energy?
- Management Strategies for Conserving Energy
- Recovering Steam Clouds and Waste Heat
- Waste Heat Recovery
- Boiler Energy Saving Tips
- Steam Line Energy Saving Tips
- Steam-Using Equipment Energy Saving Tips
- Handle Steam More Intelligently
- Optimize the Entire Steam System
- Use Available Data to Lower System Cost
- 13. Compressed Air / Gas
- 14. Other Valves
What is Steam?
Steam is the gas formed when water passes from the liquid to the gaseous state. At the molecular level, this is when H2O molecules manage to break free from the bonds (i.e. hydrogen bonds) keeping them together.
How steam works
In liquid water, H2O molecules are constantly being joined together and separated. As the water molecules are heated, however, the bonds connecting the molecules start breaking more rapidly than they can form. Eventually, when enough heat is supplied, some molecules will break free. These 'free' molecules form the transparent gas we know as steam, or more specifically dry steam.
Dry Steam vs. Wet Steam
In steam-using industries, two commonly referred to types of steam are dry steam (also called ”saturated steam”) and wet steam.
- Dry steam applies to steam when all its water molecules remain in the gaseous state. It's a transparent gas.
- Wet steam applies to steam when a portion of its water molecules have given up their energy (latent heat) and condense to form tiny water droplets.
Take the example of a kettle boiling water. Water is first heated using an element. As water absorbs more and more heat from the element, its molecules become more agitated and it starts to boil. Once enough energy is absorbed, part of the water vaporizes, which can represent an increase as much as 1600X in molecular volume.
Sometimes a mist can be seen coming out of the spout. This mist is an example of how dry steam, when released into the colder atmosphere, loses some of its energy by transferring it to the ambient air. If enough energy is lost that intermolecular bonds start forming again, tiny airborne droplets can be seen. This mixture of water in the liquid state (tiny droplets) and gaseous state (steam) is called wet steam.
For more information about the nature and various types of steam, read the following article:
Steam as a Source of Power
Steam played a vital role in the industrial revolution. The modernization of the steam engine in the early 18th century led to major breakthroughs such as the invention of the steam locomotive and the steamboat, not to mention the steam furnace and the steam hammer. The latter is not a reference to water hammer found in steam piping, but rather to a steam-powered hammer used to shape forgings.
Nowadays, however, internal combustion engines and electricity have often replaced steam as a power source. Even so, steam is still being widely used in electrical power plants and for some large scale industrial applications.
Steam as a Source of Heat
Steam is now mostly known for its heating applications, as both a source of direct and indirect heat.
Direct Steam Heating
The direct steam heating method refers to processes where steam is in direct contact with the product being heated.
The example below shows Chinese dumplings being steamed. A steaming basket is placed over a pot of boiling water. As the water boils, steam rises into the basket and cooks the food. In this setup, the boiler (pot) and steaming vessel (basket) are combined together.
The principle behind steaming food is that by allowing steam to come in direct contact with the product being heated, the latent heat of steam can be directly transferred to the food, and the water droplets formed through condensation can supply moisture.
In industry, the direct steam heating method is often used for cooking, sterilization, steam smothering, vulcanization and other processes.
Indirect Steam Heating
The indirect steam heating method refers to processes where steam is not in direct contact with the product being heated. It is widely used in industry because it provides rapid, even heating. This method often uses a heat exchanger to heat the product.
The advantage of this method over direct steam heating is that the water droplets formed during heating will not affect the product. Steam can therefore be used in a variety of applications such as for melting, drying, boiling and the like.
Indirect steam heating is used in a wide range of processes such as those for the production of foods and beverages, tires, paper, cardboard, fuels such as gasoline and medicine to name a few.
For greater details on the usage of steam in industry, read the following article:
|Steam Theory Index||Principal Applications for Steam|